Wednesday, November 10, 2010

John 18 notes

Jhn 18:1 When Jesus had spoken these words, he went out with his disciples across the Kidron Valley, where there was a garden, which he and his disciples entered.
They had been on the mount of olives during this discourse, particularly poignant that in the other gospels Jesus has discussed the end of Judaism from there, and now they come toward the city.  The kidron valley is so named for it’s darkness or shadiness. It’s due south from the temple between the temple and the mount of olives. Jesus goes there for a familiar garden to pray. In this He is the second Adam, not guilty and thrust out by righteousness, but innocent and thrust out by evil.

Jhn 18:2 Now Judas, who betrayed him, also knew the place, for Jesus often met there with his disciples.
Jesus goes to a place now where Judas could find Him.  He then submits to His own death, but prays the entire time that Judas would not come, specifically three times. Matthew 26

Jhn 18:3 So Judas, having procured a band of soldiers and some officers from the chief priests and the Pharisees, went there with lanterns and torches and weapons.
Band of Roman soldiers from the Temple Garrison were likely lied to to get them to come along, as if Jesus was going to start an uprising.  The chief priests instructed the soldiers to bring Jesus to them, which is why Jesus goes there first. The Pharisees joined this band because of religious reasons. Mark 14:45 indicates Judas walked forward just before this and said “rabbi!”

Jhn 18:4 Then Jesus, knowing all that would happen to him, came forward and said to them, "Whom do you seek?"
He was not surprised by the future, He went forward to face His death.  He also knew that the disciples had made an agreement to fight.

Jhn 18:5 They answered him, "Jesus of Nazareth." Jesus said to them, "I am he." Judas, who betrayed him, was standing with them.  


Jhn 18:6 When Jesus said to them, "I am he," they drew back and fell to the ground.
More accurately, Judas was leading them to the target, although the text indicates Judas was on their side against Jesus. This statement “I AM” and the knocking Judas to the ground was the last warning and at the same time His claim to deity once again.

Jhn 18:7 So he asked them again, "Whom do you seek?" And they said, "Jesus of Nazareth."
So they resume as if nothing had happened. No amount of warning of the coming sin will stop them.

Jhn 18:8 Jesus answered, "I told you that I am he. So, if you seek me, let these men go."
 

Jhn 18:9 This was to fulfill the word that he had spoken: "Of those whom you gave me I have lost not one."
It refers to their souls not their bodies.  This is the final time Jesus will be with His disciples before the cross
At this point Judas kissed Christ Matthew 26:48.  They would not accept the word of Christ lest he be a plant or a fake. They only make a move when Judas had kissed Him, making Judas commit the act of sin under the guide of friendship.

Jhn 18:10 Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and struck the high priest's servant and cut off his right ear. (The servant's name was Malchus.)
Confirming in the mind of the Romans the need to be here.  Peter had a sword from when Jesus told him to acquire one. Luke 22:36.  When they moved to seize Christ Peter attacks. Luke 22:49

Jhn 18:11 So Jesus said to Peter, "Put your sword into its sheath; shall I not drink the cup that the Father has given me?"
He then heals the man Luke 22:51 and lectures the mob of soldiers and fanatics. Luke 22:53.  Peter is rebuked specially because He is resisting the will of God by his violent actions.  The attached lecture for him is Matthew 26:52, he who lives by the sword will die by it, and a vigilante is a blight on the order created by God.

Jhn 18:12 So the band of soldiers and their captain and the officers of the Jews arrested Jesus and bound him.
He was bound so we could go free.  He blew them to the ground to show He had all His power, He submits to be bound so they would know it was voluntary.

Jhn 18:13 First they led him to Annas, for he was the father-in-law of Caiaphas,
All the other gospel writers omit this portion.  Nothing worthwhile happened at this location. Perhaps it was to buy a small amount of time for Caiaphas to get the council together to try Jesus.  Annas was a terrible man, but there is reason to think he is in the same house as Caiaphas.

who was high priest that year. Jhn 18:14 It was Caiaphas who had advised the Jews that it would be expedient that one man should die for the people.
John makes mention of this that the Spirit of God had come upon Caiaphas earlier and this caused him to act against Jesus.  The high priest was appointed once for life, but if you bribed or pissed off the Romans they would appoint a new ruler. Caiaphas stole it from Annas, Annas had his son by birth Jonathan appointed in another 3 years.

Jhn 18:15 Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple. Since that disciple was known to the high priest, he entered with Jesus into the court of the high priest,
Matthew 26:57; Mark 14:53; Luke 22:54;
Peter followed at a distance, but this disciple was let in immediately.   

Jhn 18:16 but Peter stood outside at the door. So the other disciple, who was known to the high priest, went out and spoke to the servant girl who kept watch at the door, and brought Peter in.
This is likely John at this point who was the disciple who knew Annas, Annas was deposed by the Romans in 14AD. It could be another one who was well known to high society in Jerusalem who got Peter brought in such as Nicodemas.  John perhaps knew the high priest, but in any case somehow one of the disciples could get Peter in on a personal favor.

Jhn 18:17 The servant girl at the door said to Peter, "You also are not one of this man's disciples, are you?" He said, "I am not."
Jhn 18:18 Now the servants and officers had made a charcoal fire, because it was cold, and they were standing and warming themselves. Peter also was with them, standing and warming himself.
After passing through the archway he comes to the courtyard and warms himself standing around watching the action. The door girl points him out later, all John is doing is telling his reader who this was.

Jhn 18:19 The high priest then questioned Jesus about his disciples and his teaching.
Annas is going to see what he can drum up against Christ.

Jhn 18:20 Jesus answered him, "I have spoken openly to the world. I have always taught in synagogues and in the temple, where all Jews come together. I have said nothing in secret.
He was open and honest. Not that He never taught in private, but that He was always open and upright. He did not seek to hide any doctrine, He always confronted the rulers.

Jhn 18:21 Why do you ask me? Ask those who have heard me what I said to them; they know what I said."
Likely He is indicating the people standing around, including the temple guards who were so hesitant to arrest Him before.  Jesus is appealing to due process, demanding the defense witnesses go first as it custom when charges are brought up.

Jhn 18:22 When he had said these things, one of the officers standing by struck Jesus with his hand, saying, "Is that how you answer the high priest?"
Cruel and tyrannical, this was the state of religion in Judea.  Asking for your rights was off limits in this case. Annas was the former high priest before being deposed by the Romans. He was fighting a secret war for high priestship with his son in law.

Jhn 18:23 Jesus answered him, "If what I said is wrong, bear witness about the wrong; but if what I said is right, why do you strike me?"
Jesus again appeals to a due process.  This was a sham court deciding the case before it was started.  His statement is that if He sinned, try Him for it, but if not, don’t punish Him unjustly.  This rebuke brings guilt on them for ignoring His request.

Jhn 18:24 Annas then sent him bound to Caiaphas the high priest.
Now Annas will turn it over to the larger council who try to find charges against Him. This is a disaster, as they call in false witnesses who can’t agree, Jesus refuses to speak, knowing this sham trial is a mockery to justice. The council was not allowed to decide at night, and capital offenses had to be done over 3 days, not one.  Judas refuses to testify, choosing to hang himself instead. That narrative is contained in Matthew 26:59-66; Mark 14:56-65
One thing I might add, the high priest was not allowed to rip his clothes, as prohibited in Leviticus 21:10. At the conclusion of the inquisition They beat Christ for sport Luke 22:63 ; Matthew 26:67-68.  You say you’re the Christ eh? Okay Christ lets see you prophecy!

Jhn 18:25 Now Simon Peter was standing and warming himself. So they said to him, "You also are not one of his disciples, are you?" He denied it and said, "I am not."
Meanwhile to the sham trial Peter gets noticed and denies Christ. Mark 14:66-68.  First off the servant girl who let him in finally confronts him, although everyone was mentioning it.
Jhn 18:26 One of the servants of the high priest, a relative of the man whose ear Peter had cut off, asked, "Did I not see you in the garden with him?"
Luke 22:58 is the parallel.  The next person starts to remember the fight scene and so asks Peter.
Jhn 18:27 Peter again denied it, and at once a rooster crowed.
Then a third time (Luke 22:59) they notice his accent (Matthew 26:73) and Peter denies Christ.
Christ looks at Peter Luke 22:61 and caused Peter to remember the rooster prophecy. 

Now Jesus is turned and led from the courtyard area to the assembled chambers of the Sanhedrin where they look to convict Him. It seems to me they have something that will hold up, having gotten a confession out of Him. They then prove it by getting a second confession of deity from Him.
Luke 22:66-71 ; Mark 15:1 ;  Matthew 27:1

Jhn 18:28 Then they led Jesus from the house of Caiaphas to the governor's headquarters. It was early morning. They themselves did not enter the governor's headquarters, so that they would not be defiled, but could eat the Passover.
It’s fine to crucify the Lord of Glory but let’s not become ceremonially impure here!
The headquarters was likely the Antonia fortress, located on the northwest corner of the temple mount overlooking the temple area and all Jerusalem.  The garrison was able to respond to Paul during the riots in acts because of their close location.
It is at this point Judas goes out and hangs Himself.

No comments: